楼主#更多 发布于：2021-03-15 20:34
As a historian who's always searching for the text or image that makes us re-evaluate the past,I' ve become preoccupied with looking for photographs that show our Victorian ancestors smiling(what better way to shatter the image of 19th-century prudery?).I' ve found quite a few, and-since I started posting them on Twitter-they have been causing quite astir. People have been surprised to see evidence that Victorians had fun and could, and did. laugh. They are noting that the Victorians suddenly seem to become more human as the hundred-or-so years that separate us fade away through our common experience of laughter.
Of course,I need to concede that my collection of Smiling Victorians' makes up only a tiny percentage of the vast catalogue of photographic portraiture created between
1840 and 1900, the majority of which show sitters posing miserably and du stifly in front of painted backdrops, or staring absently into the middle distance. How do we explain this trend?
During the 1840s and 1850s, in the early days of photography, exposure times were notoriously long: the daguerreotype photographic method(producing an image on a silvered copper plate) could take several minutes to complete, resulting in blurred images as sitters shifted position or adjusted their limbs. The thought of holding a fixed grin as the camera performed its magical duties was too much to contemplate, and so an on-committal blank stare became the norm.
But exposure times were much quicker by the 1880s, and the introduction of the Box Brownie and other portable cameras meant that, though slow by today 's digtal standards, the exposure was almost c instantaneous. Spontaneous smiles were relatively easy to capture by the 1890s, so we must look elsewhere for an explanation of why Victorians still hesitated to smile.
One explanation might be the loss of dignity displayed through acheesygrin."Naturegave uslipstoconcealourteeth, ran one popular Victorian saying, alluding to. the fact that before the birth of properdentistry, mouths were often in a shockingstate of hygiene A flashing set of healthyand clean, regular' pearlywhites' was a rare sight inVictorian society, the preserve of eythesuper-rich(and even the dentalhygiene was not guaranteed).
A toothygrin(especially when there were gaps or blackened. edteeth) lacked class: drunks, tramps and music hall perfomers might gurn and grin with a smileas wide asLewis Carrol' sgum-exposing several minutes to complete, resulting inblurred images as sitters shifted position oradjusted their limbs. The thought of holdinga fixed grin as the camera performed its magicalduties was too muchp tocontemplate, andsoa non-committal blankstare became the norm.
But exposure times were much quicker by the 1880s, and the introduction of the Box Brownie and other portable cameras meant that, though slow by today's digitastandards, the exposure was almost instantaneous. Spontaneous smiles were relatively easy to capture by the 1890s, so we must look elsewhere for an explanationof why Victorians stil hesitated to smile.
Cheshire Cat, but it was not a becoming lookfor properly bred persons. Even Mark Twain,a man who enjoyed a hearty laugh, said thatwhen itcameto photographic portraits there could be nothing more damningthan a silly, foolish smile fixed forever.
31. According to Paragraph 1, the author' sposts on Twitter
A. Changedpeople' es impression of the Victorians
B. highlighted social media's role inVictorian studies
C. re-evaluated the Victorians notion of public image.
D.illustrated the development of Victorianphotography.
32.Whatdoesauthor sayabouttheVictorian portraits he has collected?
A.They are in popular use among historians.
B.They are rare among photographs ofthat age.
C.They mirror 19th-century socialedu conventions.
D.They show effects of different exposure times.
33.What might have kept the Victorians from smiling for pictures in the 1890s?
A.Their inherent social sensitiveness.
B.Their tension before the camera.
C.Their distrust of new inventions.
D.Their unhealthy dental condition.
34.Mark Twain is quoted to show that the disapproval of smiles in pictures was
C.a controversial view.
35.Which of the following questions doesthe text answer?
A.Whydid most Victorians look stern in photographs?
B.Whydid the Victorians startto view photographs?
C.What made photography develop slowly in the Victorian period?
D.How didsm linginphotographsbecome apost-Victoriannorm?